快捷搜索: 紐約時報  誠信  教育  經濟學人  中國  香港 

你應該了解的十大醫學誤區

10 Findings That Contradict Medical Wisdom. Doctors, Take Note.
你應該了解的十大醫學誤區

You might assume that standard medical advice was supported by mounds of scientific research. But researchers recently discovered that nearly 400 routine practices were flatly contradicted by studies published in leading journals.

你可能會以為標準的醫療建議有大量科學研究做支撐。但研究人員近來卻發現,近400項常規實踐完全與發表在頂級期刊上的研究相矛盾。

Of more than 3,000 studies published from 2003 through 2017 in JAMA and the Lancet, and from 2011 through 2017 in the New England Journal of Medicine, more than one of 10 amounted to a “medical reversal”: a conclusion opposite of what had been conventional wisdom among doctors.

在2003年到2017年發表在《美國醫學會雜志》(JAMA)和《柳葉刀》(The Lancet)雜志,以及2011年到2017年發表在《新英格蘭醫學雜志》(The New England Journal of Medicine)上的3000多項研究中,超過十分之一構成是“醫療逆轉”:一項結論與醫生的普遍認知相反的現象。

“You come away with a sense of humility,” said Dr. Vinay Prasad of Oregon Health and Science University, who conceived of the study. “Very smart and well-intentioned people came to practice these things for many, many years. But they were wrong.”

“你到頭來會有一種羞愧的感覺,”這項研究的構想者、俄勒岡健康與科學大學(Oregon Health and Science University)的維奈·普拉薩德(Vinay Prasad)說。“多少年來,一些懷著好心的聰明人一直在這么做。但他們是錯的。”

Some of those ideas have been firmly dislodged, but not all. Now Dr. Prasad and his colleagues are trying to learn how widespread are discredited practices and ideas.

這些理念中的一部分已被堅決摒棄,但不是全部。普拉薩德和他的同事目前正設法了解不可信的實踐和理念有多普遍。

Here are 10 findings that contradict what were once widely held theories.

以下是10項與人們一度普遍持有的理論相悖的發現。

Peanut allergies occur whether or not a child is exposed to peanuts before age 3.

無論兒童是否在3歲前食用過花生,花生過敏問題都會發生。

Pediatricians have counseled parents to keep babies away from peanuts for the first three years of life. As it turns out, children exposed to peanuts before they were even 1 year old have no greater risk of peanut allergies.

兒科醫生一直建議父母們不要讓寶寶在3歲前食用花生。結果發現,即便1歲前食用過花生的兒童發生花生過敏的幾率也并不會更大。

Fish oil does not reduce the risk of heart disease.

魚油不會降低心臟病風險。

At one point, the notion that fish fats prevented heart trouble did seem logical. People whose diets contain a lot of fatty fish seem to have a lower incidence of heart disease. Fatty fish contains omega-3 fatty acids. Omega-3 supplements lower levels of triglycerides, and high levels of triglycerides are linked to an increased risk of heart disease. Not to mention that omega-3 fatty acids seem to reduce inflammation, a key feature of heart attacks.

魚的脂肪有助于預防心臟問題的理念曾一度看似符合邏輯。飲食中包含大量多脂魚的人患有心臟病的幾率似乎更低。多脂魚含有ω-3脂肪酸。ω-3補充劑可降低甘油三酯水平,而甘油三酯水平偏高與心臟病風險增大有關。更不用說,ω-3脂肪酸似乎可以減輕炎癥這一心臟病發作的關鍵特征。<-->紐約時報中英文網 http://www.uydujn.live<-->

But in a trial involving 12,500 people at risk for heart trouble, daily omega-3 supplements did not protect against heart disease.

但涉及1.25萬有患心臟病風險者的一項試驗發現,每天服用ω-3補充劑沒能預防心臟病。

A lifelike doll carried around by teenage girls will not deter pregnancies.

少女背仿真娃娃不會防止懷孕。

These dolls wail and need to be “changed” and “cuddled.” The idea was that girls would learn how much work was involved in caring for an infant. But a randomized study found that girls who were told to carry around “infant simulators” actually were slightly more likely to become pregnant than girls who did not get the dolls.

這些玩偶會哭嚎,需要給“換尿布”還要“抱抱”。這種想法認為,這樣女孩們就能了解照顧嬰兒需要做多少事情。但一項隨機研究發現,被要求隨身攜帶“模擬嬰兒”的女孩,懷孕幾率事實上比沒有這些玩偶的女孩稍高一些。

Ginkgo biloba does not protect against memory loss and dementia.

銀杏制品不會預防記憶減退和癡呆癥。

The supplement, made from the leaves of ginkgo trees, was widely used in ancient Chinese medicine and still is promoted as a way to preserve memory. A large federal study, published in 2008, definitively showed the supplement is useless for this purpose. Yet ginkgo still pulls in $249 million in sales. Did people just not get the message?

這類用銀杏葉制作的補充劑在古代中醫中使用很普遍,如今仍作為保護記憶力的一種方式推廣。2008年發表的一項大型聯邦調查明確顯示,這種補充劑起不到這樣的作用。但銀杏依然拉動著2.49億美元的銷售。人們難道還沒明白嗎?

To treat emergency room patients in acute pain, a single dose of oral opioids is no better than drugs like aspirin and ibuprofen.

在急救室醫治急性疼痛患者時,一劑口服阿片類藥物并不比阿斯匹林和布洛芬這類藥好。

Yes, opioids are powerful drugs. But a clinical trial showed that much safer alternatives relieve pain just as well among emergency room patients.

的確,阿片類藥物藥效很強。但一項臨床試驗顯示,對于急診室患者,減輕疼痛尚有更安全且藥效相當的替代選擇。

Testosterone treatment does not help older men retain their memory.

睪丸酮治療無助于年長男性保持記憶力。

Some men have low levels of testosterone and memory problems, and early studies had hinted that middle-aged men with higher testosterone levels seemed to have better preserved tissue in some parts of their brains. Older men with higher testosterone levels also seemed to do better on tests of mental functioning.

紐約時報中英文網 http://www.uydujn.live

一些男性睪丸酮水平低,并有記憶問題,早期研究有跡象表明,睪丸酮水平較高的中年男性大腦部分區域的組織似乎保護得更好。睪丸酮水平較高的年長男性在心理功能測試中表現似乎也更好。

But a rigorous clinical trial showed that testosterone was no better than a sugar pill in helping older men avoid memory loss.

但一項嚴格的臨床試驗顯示,在幫助年長男性避免記憶減退方面,睪丸酮并不比一粒糖片效果好。

To protect against asthma attacks, it won’t help to keep your house free of dust mites, mice and cockroaches.

讓房間遠離塵螨、老鼠和蟑螂無助于防止哮喘發作。

The advice from leading medical groups has been to rid your home of these pests if you or your child has asthma. The theory was that allergic reactions to them can trigger asthma attacks. But intensive pest management in homes with children sensitized to mouse allergens did nothing to reduce the frequency of their asthma attacks, researchers reported in 2017.

如果您或孩子有哮喘,一流醫療組織的建議一直是去除房間里的這些害蟲。其理論是對它們的過敏反應可能會導致哮喘發作。但研究人員2017年報告稱,家中有兒童對鼠類過敏原較為敏感的,進行密集的害蟲管理對于減輕他們的哮喘發作毫無作用。

Step counters and calorie trackers do not help you lose weight.

計步器和卡路里追蹤器對減肥沒有幫助。

In fact, dieters may be better off without digital assistance. Among 470 dieters followed for two years, those who wore devices tracking the steps they took and calories they burned actually lost less weight than those who just followed standard advice.

事實上,節食者沒有數字設備幫助可能反而更好。在對470名節食者跟蹤兩年后發現,比起只遵循標準建議的人,隨身攜帶步數和卡路里追蹤設備的人事實上減掉的重量更少。

Torn knee meniscus? Try physical therapy first, surgery later.

膝蓋半月板撕裂?先嘗試物理療法,再去做手術。

An estimated 460,000 patients in the United States get surgery each year to fix knee cartilage that tears, often because of osteoarthritis. The tear is painful, and many patients fear that if it is not surgically treated, the pain will linger.

美國每年估計有46萬名患者通過手術修復常因骨關節炎撕裂的膝蓋軟骨。撕裂很疼痛,許多患者擔心如不接受手術治療,痛感會一直持續下去。

But when patients with a torn meniscus and moderate arthritis were randomized to six months of physical therapy or surgery, both groups improved, and to the same extent.

但在讓半月板撕裂和輕度關節炎患者隨機接受六個月的物理療法或手術治療后發現,兩組患者病情都有好轉,好轉的程度也一樣。

If a pregnant woman’s water breaks prematurely, the baby does not have to be delivered immediately.

如果孕婦的羊水提前破了,不需要非得立即分娩。

Sometimes, a few weeks before a woman’s due date, the membrane surrounding her fetus ruptures and amniotic fluid spills out. Obstetricians worried that bacteria could invade what had been a sterile environment around the fetus, causing infection. Better to deliver the baby immediately, doctors thought.

有時,在預產期幾周前,胎膜會破裂,羊水會隨之突然溢出。產科醫生擔心細菌可能會入侵胎兒周圍一直以來的無菌環境,從而導致感染。醫生以為最好要立刻生下嬰兒。

But a clinical trial found that if obstetricians carefully monitor the fetus while waiting for labor to begin naturally, the fetus is at no greater risk for infection. And newborns left to gestate were healthier, with less respiratory distress and a lower risk of death, than those who were delivered immediately after a break.

但一項臨床試驗發現,如果產科醫生能在等待分娩開始自然發生的同時,仔細監控好胎兒,那么胎兒遭受感染的幾率并不會變大。此外,比起羊水破裂后立即出生的嬰兒,妊娠期滿出生的新生兒也更健康,發生呼吸困難或死亡的幾率都更小。

網站部分信息來源于自互聯網和網友上傳,只為方便大家查詢瀏覽,請自行核對信息的真實情況,本站將不承擔任何責任!

您可以還會對下面的文章感興趣:

  • 36小時環游新加坡
  • 中國頒布新規,限制未成年人玩游戲
  • 辭掉工作、花了57天,他們找回了走失的狗
  • 改善健康也許很簡單:每天少吃300卡
  • 中國志愿者網絡“樹洞救援隊”用AI救援數百位自殺者
  • 最新評論

    留言與評論(共有 條評論)
       
    驗證碼:
    pk10九码滚雪球计划表