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巴黎圣母院火災調查的五個關鍵要點

How Notre-Dame Was Saved: 5 Things We Know
巴黎圣母院火災調查的五個關鍵要點

How was it that fire ravaged Notre-Dame? And how was it saved?

巴黎圣母院的那場大火究竟是怎么回事?巴黎圣母院又是怎么得救的?

A New York Times investigation found that a miscommunication among security employees and flawed planning let the fire spin out of control in one of France’s most revered monuments on April 15. When the firefighters were called, it was already too late to stop it from spreading.

《紐約時報》的一項調查發現,由于安全人員之間的溝通不暢和規劃上的缺陷,導致4月15日法國最受推崇的古跡之一起火后失控。當消防員被叫來時,已經無法阻止火勢的蔓延。

Some 500 firefighters battled the blaze into the night. Some, at the peril of their own lives, went inside the northern tower to protect it from flames at a moment when it could have collapsed at any time. This decisive moment saved the structure.

約有500名消防員與大火搏斗到了深夜。他們中一些冒著生命危險進入北塔內部,在它可能隨時倒塌的時刻,保護它免受火焰的吞噬。這一決定性時刻挽救了大教堂的主體結構。

Here is what the investigation revealed about a foretold tragedy, and how the worst was averted.

以下是調查所揭示出的一場預料之中的悲劇,以及最壞的情況是如何得以避免的。

Security employees couldn’t locate the fire and waited 30 minutes before calling the firefighters.

保安找不到起火的位置,等了30分鐘才報火警。

After the first warning light flashed with the word ‘Feu,’ or fire, at 6:18 p.m. on April 15, a fire security employee monitoring a control panel at the cathedral radioed a church guard by walkie-talkie, so he could go to check if there was actually a fire. This is a general French practice.

4月15日晚6點18分,當第一盞警示燈上亮起“火”這個字時,一名監控大教堂控制板的消防安全人員通過對講機呼叫了一名教堂保安,讓他去查看是否真的起火。這在法國是常規做法。

But the church guard went to the wrong place: instead of walking up to the cathedral’s attic, he went to check the attic of an adjacent building, the sacristy. It is unclear whether the security employee misread the message, or if the church guard misunderstood it, but neither could locate the fire.

但這名教堂保安去錯了地方:他沒有上到大教堂的塔樓,反而去查看了隔壁一棟樓的塔樓:圣器收藏室。尚不清楚是否這名安全人員誤讀了信息,或是教堂保安誤解了信息,但兩人均未能確定起火位置。

The security employee assumed it was a false alarm and tried to deactivate the system. He didn’t call the firefighters. In the meantime, the church guard stayed in the sacristy.

保安以為那是個假警報,并試圖關閉系統。他沒有打電話叫消防員。與此同時,教堂保安仍在圣器收藏室內。

After several phone calls among employees and 25 precious minutes wasted, a manager finally gave the right order to the church guard: go to the cathedral attic. Only when the church guard located the fire there, at 6:48 p.m., did the security employee finally call the firefighters.

工作人員之間互撥了幾通電話,浪費了25分鐘寶貴時間后,一名經理終于給教堂保安下達了正確的命令:去大教堂的閣樓。下午6點48分,這名教堂保安才確定火災位置在那里,安全人員終于報了火警。

紐約時報中英文網 http://www.uydujn.live/

The design of the fire alarm system was riddled with faulty assumptions.

火災預警系統的設計有太多錯誤假設。

Archival documents found in a suburban Paris library show that it took six years, dozens of experts and thousands of pages of documents to set up the fire warning system at Notre-Dame.

在巴黎郊區一所圖書館找到的檔案文件顯示,巴黎圣母院火警系統的建立花了六年時間,調集了幾十名專家,生成了幾千頁文件。

With more than 160 detectors and manual alarms, it seemed elaborate enough to detect any smoke and send an alert. Yet little was done to prevent a fire from spreading: There were no sprinklers or firewalls in the attic. The alarm message was hardly understandable.

這個系統有160多個探測器和手動報警器,似乎足夠精密,能探測出所有煙霧并發出警報。但它幾乎沒有防止火勢蔓延的措施:塔樓里沒有灑水裝置或者防火墻。警報信息讓人難以理解。

What was designed to generate a quick response led to a critical loss of time.

設計它的目的本是產生快速反應,結果卻嚴重耽誤時間。

“The whole outcome of it is this clumsy human response,” said Glenn Corbett, an associate professor of fire science at John Jay College of Criminal Justice in New York. “You can spend a lot to detect a fire, but it all goes down the drain when you don’t move on it.”

“它的全部結果就是人的笨拙反應,”紐約約翰·杰刑事司法學院(John Jay College of Criminal Justice)消防學副教授格倫·科貝特(Glenn Corbett)說。“你可以花很多錢來偵測火情,但如不采取行動,一切都是白費。”

On top of those flaws came the inexperience of the security employee monitoring the control panel, who had been working at Notre-Dame for just three days. He had never been to the attic.

除這些缺陷外,還有監控控制板的保安人員經驗不足的問題,他當時剛在巴黎圣母院工作三天。他也從未去過塔樓。

“The only thing that surprised me is that this disaster didn’t happen sooner,” said Albert Simeoni, the head of fire protection engineering at Worcester Polytechnic Institute in Massachusetts.

“唯一令我感到意外的是,這場災難竟然沒有來得更早,”馬薩諸塞州伍斯特理工學院(Worcester Polytechnic Institute)消防工程主任阿爾伯特·西梅奧尼(Albert Simeoni)說。

The delay in calling the firefighters left them in a nearly impossible position.

延遲報火警讓他們處在了幾乎無能為力的境地。

The first firefighters reached Notre-Dame shortly before 7 p.m., when the cathedral was already engulfed with flames. They couldn’t contain the flames on the roof, which were whipped up by winds that pushed the fire toward the towers.

首批消防員在將近7點時趕到了巴黎圣母院,當時大教堂已被火焰籠罩。他們無法控制住教堂頂上的火勢,火焰被風吹起,把大火推向塔樓。

When the spire collapsed, it sent a fireball through the attic. Some firefighters were just a few feet away. Yet none were killed.

塔尖倒塌時,一個火球跟著擊穿了閣樓。一些消防員就在幾英尺遠的地方。但沒有人員死亡。

The collapse set the firefighters back further after a critically late start.

繼太晚采取行動之后,塔尖倒塌又讓消防員退后了一步。

“It’s like starting a 400 meters several dozen meters behind,” said Gen. Jean-Marie Gontier, the Paris brigade deputy fire chief, comparing the fight to a foot race.

“那就像是從起跑線后幾十米遠的地方開始400米跑,”巴黎消防隊副隊長讓-瑪里·貢蒂埃將軍(Gen. Jean-Marie Gontier)在把滅火比作賽跑。

The cathedral was dangerously close to collapsing.

大教堂瀕臨倒塌的危險。

After the spire collapsed, the fire brigade general overseeing the operations convened a critical meeting and decided to throw everything into saving the towers, focusing on the northern one, already on fire.

塔尖倒塌后,負責此次作業的消防隊長召開了緊急會議,決定不惜一切代價挽救塔樓,重點拯救北側已經起火的塔樓。

That probably saved the cathedral.

很可能是這一點保住了大教堂。

Inside the northern tower, eight giant bells hung precariously on wooden beams. The firefighters feared that if the beams collapsed, the falling bells would act like wrecking balls and destroy the tower.

在北塔內部,8座巨大的時鐘搖搖欲墜地掛在木梁上。消防員擔心,一旦木梁倒塌,墜落的時鐘會像破壞球一般摧毀塔樓。

“At that point, it was clear that some firefighters were going to go into the cathedral without knowing if they would come back out,” said Ariel Weil, the Paris mayor of the 4th Arrondissement, where Notre-Dame is.

“很顯然那一刻,一些消防員進入大教堂時都不知道還能不能活著出來,”巴黎圣母院所在的巴黎第4區區長阿里埃爾·魏爾(Ariel Weil)說。

Inside the northern tower, a group of firefighters reached a floor at the height of the bells, where they were able to battle the flames back. One firefighter almost fell through the wooden, cracking steps.

在北塔內部,一隊消防員夠到了時鐘所在的樓層,在那里撲火。一名消防員差點兒從開裂的木臺階上掉下來。

By 9:45 p.m., they had tamed most of the flames.

直至晚9點45分,他們馴服了大部分火勢。

What caused the fire? We still don’t know.

是什么引起了火災?我們仍不知道。

Investigators have said that the fire may have been caused by a short-circuit in the electrified bells of the spire, or in the elevators that had been set up on the scaffolding. Cigarette butts, left by workers and found on the scaffolding, are another possibility.

調查人員曾表示,大火可能是塔尖的電鈴或腳手架上的電梯短路造成的。腳手架上工人留下并被發現的煙頭是另一種可能的原因。

Church and fire security employees have been blaming each other for the miscommunication and delay in calling the firefighters. Investigators have yet to say who was responsible.

教堂和消防安全人員一直在就溝通不暢和延遲報火警而互相指責。調查人員尚未宣布責任方。

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