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人類建筑的未來趨勢:采用木質建材對抗氣候暖化

更新時間:2019/9/9 21:09:43 來源:紐約時報中文網 作者:佚名

Could wooden buildings be a solution to climate change?
人類建筑的未來趨勢:采用木質建材對抗氣候暖化

I’m standing in a seemingly ordinary construction site of an unremarkable office block in east London. The seven-storey building is about two-thirds complete – the basic structure and staircases are in place, with plastering and wiring just beginning. But as I walk around, something different slowly reveals itself. The construction site is quiet and clean – it even smells good. And there’s an awful lot of wood. Building sites typically feature wood as the mould to pour the concrete into. But here, the wood is the concrete.

這是東倫敦一個看來普通不過的辦公樓建筑工地。七層高的樓房已建成了三分之二,基本結構和樓梯部分已經各就各位,正在開始為墻壁抹灰泥和鋪設管道線路。待我東張西望到處走動,才慢慢發現這座未完工的大樓有非同尋常之處。建筑工地安靜而又干凈,甚至還有一股好聞的氣味。工地上堆著大量的木材。建筑工地通常以木材作框以澆筑混凝土。但在這個工地上,木材充當的就是混凝土的功能。

“Because a timber building weighs 20% of a concrete building, the gravitational load is vastly reduced,” enthuses Andrew Waugh, the architect, who shows me around. “That means we need minimal foundations, we don’t need massive amounts of concrete in the ground. We have a timber core, timber walls and timber floor slabs – so we reduce the amount of steel down to a bare minimum.” Steel is typically used to form the main internal supports or to reinforce concrete in most large modern buildings. In this wooden building, however, there are relatively few steel sections. Those that remain are bolted together like a Meccano set, to be easily taken apart at the end of (or during) the building’s life. “If you wanted to put a staircase right here,” says Waugh, pointing to the ceiling, “you unscrew that [steel] beam there, get a chainsaw and cut a hole in the timber [floor].”

領著我參觀的建筑師安德魯‧沃(Andrew Waugh)興奮地告訴我,“木結構建筑的重量只有混凝土建筑的20%,因此大樓的重力負荷大幅減輕。這就是說,我們只需要最基本的地基就可以了,不需要澆筑龐大的混凝土地基。我們以木材作建筑主結構,再加上木墻和木地板,因此可以把鋼材的數量減少到最低限度。”大多數大型現代建筑通常用鋼材做主要的承重梁柱,并用鋼筋或鋼骨來強化混凝土的拉力。然而這座木結構樓房只使用了很少的鋼材。而這些鋼材如同英國麥卡諾(Meccano)品牌的模型組合玩具一樣是用螺栓固定在一起,在樓房的使用壽命結束時或使用期間要拆開都很容易。沃指著天花板說,“要是你想在這里加建一個樓梯,你只需要擰開鋼梁的螺絲,拿把鏈鋸,在木地板上鋸個洞就能辦到。”

Our dependency on concrete and steel to build everything from homes to sports stadiums, comes at a severe environmental cost. Concrete is responsible for 4-8% of the world’s carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions. Second only to water, it is the most widely used substance on Earth, accounting for around 85% of all mining and linked to an alarming depletion of the world’s sand. Globally, enough concrete is poured each year to cover the whole of England.

當代建筑,從住房到體育場館,完全依賴混凝土和鋼材做建材,結果是付出嚴重的環保代價。混凝土造成的碳排放量占全球二氧化碳排放量的4%至8%。制作混凝土的砂石開采量僅次于地球上使用最廣泛的自然資源水,砂石開采量約占全球所有采礦業的85%,結果是造成全球的海沙河沙驚人的枯竭。現在全球每年澆筑的混凝土足以覆蓋整個英格蘭。

Some architects such as Waugh are therefore arguing for – and pressing ahead with – a return to wood as our primary building material. Wood from managed forestry actually stores carbon as opposed to emitting it: as trees grow, they absorb CO2 from the atmosphere. As a rule of thumb, a cubic metre of wood contains around a tonne of CO2 (more or less, depending on the species of tree) – which is similar to 350 litres of gasoline.

因此,以安德魯‧沃為代表的一些建筑師主張回歸傳統,用木材作為今后人類建筑的主材料,并身體力行地推動他們的主張。木材如果是取自于受到人工管理的森林,實際上是有助于碳的儲存,而不是將碳排放到大氣中,因為樹木在生長過程中,會從大氣中吸收二氧化碳。根據過往經驗,每立方米木材含有大約一噸的二氧化碳,相當于350升汽油。至于實際存儲多少,則取決于樹木的種類。

Not only does wood remove more CO2 from the atmosphere than it adds through manufacture, but by replacing carbon-intensive materials such as concrete or steel it doubles its contribution to lowering CO2. A recent advisory report to the UK government on the uses of “Biomass in a low-carbon economy” found that, “the greatest levels of [greenhouse gas] abatement from biomass currently occur when wood is used as a construction material… to both store carbon and displace high carbon cement, brick and steel.”

用木料做建材不僅僅因為其從大氣中吸收的二氧化碳比其釋放的二氧化碳要多,而且因為取代混凝土或鋼鐵等碳排放量巨大的建筑材料,木材對降低大氣中的二氧化碳含量又多了一重貢獻。最近一份題為《低碳經濟中的生物質能》的咨詢報告送交給英國政府。報告指出,“使用木材作建筑材料……既儲存碳,又替代高碳排放的水泥、磚和鋼鐵等材料,因此生物質能可以最高水平減少溫室氣體。”

Between 15% and 28% of new homes built in the UK annually use timber frame construction, capturing over one million tonnes of CO2 a year as a result. Increasing the use of timber in construction could triple that amount, the report concluded. “Savings of a similar magnitude may also be possible in the commercial and industrial sectors by utilising new engineered wood systems such as cross-laminated timber.”

現在英國每年新落成的房屋,有15%到28%使用的是木結構建筑,因而每年捕獲的二氧化碳超過100萬噸。該報告的結論是,增加建筑木材量可能使這一數字增加兩倍。“在商業和工業部門使用新的工程木料,例如交叉層壓木板(CIT),也可能節省同樣數量的碳排放。”

Cross-laminated timber, or CLT, is the primary material on the construction site Andrew Waugh shows me around in east London. Because it’s described as an “engineered wood”, I expect to see something similar to chipboard or plywood. But CLT just looks like ordinary 3m (10ft) planks of wood, one inch thick, replete with knot-holes and splinters. The ingenuity is that the planks are made stronger by gluing them in layers of three, with each layer perpendicular to the other. This means that the CLT “doesn’t bow or bend, it has integral strength in two directions”, says Waugh. “[A CLT] wall supports the floor above, with a horizontal strength to carry a load above it, acting like a long beam”. That, he says, “changes architecture”.

安德魯·沃帶我參觀的東倫敦建筑工地,其主要材料就是交叉層壓木板。因為稱之為“工程木料”,我以為看到的會是刨花木板或膠合板之類的東西。實際上,交叉層壓木板看起來就像普通的3米,即10英尺長木板,有1英寸厚,板面滿布木節孔和木紋。其天才的設計在于,木板是三層粘合而成,每層均與鄰層紋路垂直相交,從而十分堅固。安德魯‧沃表示,這意味著交叉層壓木板“不會向上也不會向下彎曲,水平垂直兩個方向的強度都很高”。他說,“交叉層壓木板墻身能支撐整個上層的地板,其水平向的強度足以承載上層樓的荷載,猶如一根長梁一樣”。這“改變了建筑”。

Having built with CLT for a decade now, Waugh believes it can achieve anything a concrete and steel building can, and more besides. It was invented in the 1990s, partly in response to “the death of the furniture and paper industries”, says Waugh. “Sixty percent of Austria is forest and they needed to find a new sales outlet. So, they came up with cross-laminated timber.”

安德魯·沃使用交叉層壓木板建房已經有10年歷史,他相信這種木材可以做到任何混凝土和鋼鐵建筑可以做到的事,甚至更多。他說,交叉層壓木板是上世紀90年代發明的,部分原因是為了解決“家具和造紙工業的消亡”。“奧地利60%的土地是森林,他們需要為木材找到一個新的銷售渠道門路。所以,奧地利人發明了交叉層壓木板這種新的工程木料。”

Other engineered woods such as plywood and MDF are around 10% adhesive (glue), often urea-formaldehyde, which can produce hazardous chemicals during recycling or incineration. CLT, however, is below 1% adhesive, and typically uses a bio-based polyurethane. The planks are bonded together under heat and pressure to fuse that small amount of adhesive using the moisture of the wood. To look at, smell and touch, it’s as pure wood as a child’s tree house – knots and all.

膠合板和中密度纖維板等工程木材,含有10%左右的粘合劑,即所謂膠水,通常是一種叫脲醛的化學物,在回收或焚燒過程中會產生有害化學物質。但交叉層壓木板的黏合劑含量則低于1%,通常使用比較環保的生物聚氨酯。木板在高溫和壓力下粘合在一起,少量的粘合劑則被木材中的濕氣所融化。看著這種木板,再用鼻子聞一聞,用手摸一摸,感覺就像為孩子建的樹屋一樣,是帶著木質疤痕和紋路的純粹木頭。

Many CLT factories in Austria are even powered by renewable biomass using the offcuts, branches and twigs. Some factories produce enough electricity to power the surrounding communities.

奧地利許多生產交叉層壓木材的工廠為了環保,甚至使用可再生的生物質能來作燃料,如木材邊角廢料、樹皮和樹枝等。一些工廠用生物質能生產的電力還足夠供應周圍的社區。

Despite the fact that CLT was invented in Austria, Waugh’s London-based architecture practice, Waugh Thistleton, was the first to use it to construct a multi-storey building. Murray Grove, an otherwise ordinary nine-floor apartment block with grey cladding, caused “shock and horror in Austria” when it was being built in 2009, says Waugh. CLT had only ever been used for “nice and simple two-storey houses”, whereas anything taller reverted to concrete and steel. But for Murray Grove, the entire structure above the first floor slab is comprised of CLT panels, with all walls, floor slabs and lift cores formed from timber, like a honeycomb block.

盡管交叉層壓木材是奧地利發明的,但第一個使用這種建材來建造多層樓房的公司是安德魯‧沃的倫敦建筑事務所。默里格羅夫大廈(Murray Grove)是倫敦街頭一棟普通的九層公寓樓,樓面是灰色的。安德魯‧沃說,2009年這座大廈落成時,“在奧地利引起了震驚和恐慌”。因為在此之前交叉層壓木只用來建造“漂亮而簡單的兩層樓房子”,而高于兩層樓的房子則會恢復到混凝土和鋼結構。但是默里格羅夫大廈的一樓以上的整個結構全由交叉層壓木板組成,所有的墻壁、樓板和電梯內壁都是這種木板,很像蜂窩塊一樣。

The project has since inspired hundreds of architects to build tall with CLT, from the 55m Brock Commons Tallwood House, in Vancouver, Canada, to the 84m, 24-storey 'HoHo Tower' currently under construction in Vienna, Austria.

默里格羅夫大廈的成功啟發了全球數百名建筑師使用交叉層壓木板建造高樓,其中最高的是加拿大溫哥華的布洛克卡芒區高55米的高木大樓( Tallwood House)。奧地利維也納即將超越這個記錄,目前正在建設將高達84米的24層和和高樓(HoHo Tower)。

Recently there have been calls for tree planting on a colossal scale to capture CO2 and curb climate change. However, whilst young trees are efficient and effective carbon sinks, the same is not so true for mature trees. The Earth maintains a balanced carbon cycle – trees (along with all other plants and animals) grow using carbon, they fall and die, and release that carbon again. That balance was knocked out of kilter when humans discovered ancient stores of carbon in the form of coal and oil, which had been captured during previous carbon cycles, and began burning them, releasing the resulting CO2 into our atmosphere far faster than the current cycle can deal with.

最近很多人呼吁大規模植樹造林,以捕獲大氣中的二氧化碳,遏制氣候暖化。然而,雖然新生的樹木能有效回收和儲存碳,但成年老樹并非如此。地球本來一直維持著一個平衡的碳循環,樹木、以及所有植物和動物,均靠吸收碳而生長,然后枯萎和死亡,將碳再次釋放出來。但當人類發現以煤和石油的形式儲存的碳,開始燃燒這種石化燃料時,碳循環的平衡就被打破。煤和石油是在遠古地質年代在碳循環中被捕獲而儲藏于地下數以萬年的碳,一旦大量開采,燃燒后產生的巨量二氧化碳釋放到大氣中,其釋放速度之快是目前的碳循環無法處理的。

Many pine trees in managed forests, such as the European spruce, take roughly 80 years to reach maturity, being net absorbers of carbon during those years of growth – but once they reach maturity, they shed roughly as much carbon through the decomposition of needles and fallen branches as they absorb. As was the case in Austria in the 1990s, plummeting demand for paper and wood saw huge swathes of managed forests globally fall into disuse. Rather than return to pristine wilderness, these monocrops cover forest floors in acidic pine needles and dead branches. Canada's great forests for example have actually emitted more carbon than they absorb since 2001, thanks to mature trees no longer being actively felled.

在有效管理的森林中,許多松樹,如歐洲云杉,需要大約80年才能達到成熟,因此在這80年生長期,是在凈吸收碳。不過一旦成年,這些老樹開始針葉脫落,樹枝枯萎。此時這些樹木吸收的碳和釋放的碳大致相當。上世紀90年代,對紙張和木材的需求急劇下降,導致全球范圍內大片管理森林被廢棄,奧地利的森林也出現這樣的現象。但這些失去管理的森林沒有回復為原始的荒野,森林地下全部覆蓋著單一樹種的酸性針葉和枯枝。由于成熟的樹木無人砍伐制成木材,自2001年以來,加拿大巨大的森林實際排放的碳比吸收的還要多。

Arguably, the best form of carbon sequestration is to chop down trees: to restore our sustainable, managed forests, and use the resulting wood as a building material. Managed forests certified by the Forest Stewardship Council (FSC) typically plant two to three trees for every tree felled – meaning the more demand there is for wood, the greater the growth in both forest cover and CO2-hungry young trees.

此時有人提出一個理論,認為將碳封存起來的最好辦法是砍伐樹木,恢復可持續的有管理的森林,砍伐成年樹木用作建筑材料。經環保團體“森林管理委員會”(FSC)認證的人工管理森林通常每砍伐一棵樹就要種植兩到三棵樹。這意味著對木材的需求量越大,森林的覆蓋率和需要呼吸二氧化碳的幼樹的增長就越大。

Rewilding and protecting virgin forests is essential. But unmanaged monocrops help no-one, and floors full of dry pine needles are also the primary cause of wildfires – something that North America and many parts of the world experience on a now annual basis. Managed harvesting greatly reduces that risk.

讓森林恢復野生和保護原始森林都是必需的。但是,未作管理的單一樹種森林則毫無益處,而且這種森林遍地干燥的針葉也是引發野火的主要原因。北美和世界上許多地方都會因此發生這樣的森林火災。有管理的砍伐樹木會大大降低這種風險。

These benefits have not been lost on the US authorities. Melissa Jenkins, of the US Federal Forest Service, explained at a recent meeting of the Environmental and Energy Study Institute (EESI), that “we have a situation of overstocked forests: if a wildfire blows through, these fires burn hotter, they burn faster and they take a lot more effort to put out… If we can build markets for these wood products, landowners will be more likely to sustainably manage or sustainably thin their land.” She highlights that CLT in particular as having the potential to reduce “wildfire risk [and] support rural economic development and jobs”.

美國當局對管理森林的好處并非視而不見。在環境和能源研究協會(EES)最近的一次會議上,美國聯邦森林管理局的梅麗莎·詹金斯解釋說,“我們有森林過密的情況。如果這些森林發生野火,火勢會越來越大,燃燒速度會很快,滅火也會更加困難…...如果我們可以為這些森林的木材建立銷售市場,森林的業主就可能可持續地管理自己的森林,不時砍伐成樹以免森林過密。”她特別強調,交叉層壓木板這種工程木料特別有降低“野火風險的潛力,并能支持鄉村經濟發展和就業”。

The market seems to agree. Less than five years after its arrival on US shores, there are now CLT projects underway in almost every mainland US state. More importantly, unlike the UK – which currently imports all of its CLT – the US is investing in domestic CLT manufacturing, with factories in Montana and Oregon, and more planned in Maine, Utah, Illinois, Texas, Washington State, Alabama and Arkansas. Amazon’s new “tech-hub” building in Minneapolis is made from nail laminated timber (like CLT, but using nails rather than glue). The 2018 Timber Innovation Act also included provisions for research and development into mass timber.

建材市場似乎也同意梅麗莎·詹金斯之說。交叉層壓木板登陸美國還不到五年,現在美國幾乎每個州都有交叉層壓板建筑工程在進行。更重要的是,與目前全部靠進口的英國不同,美國正在投資本國的交叉層壓板生產,現設有工廠的有蒙大拿州和俄勒岡州,其余緬因州、猶他州、伊利諾伊州、德克薩斯州、華盛頓州、阿拉巴馬州和阿肯色州也計劃建廠。亞馬遜在明尼阿波利斯新建的“技術中心”大樓是由釘層壓木板(類似交叉層壓板,但使用釘子而不是膠水來合成多層木板)建成。美國國會通過的《2018年木材創新法案》還包括對大批量木材使用研發的規定。

Structures using wooden materials also tend to be quicker and easier to build, therefore reducing labour costs, transport fuel and on-site energy use. Alison Wring, director of Aecom, an infrastructure company, cites a CLT residential block of around 200 apartments that “took just 16 weeks [to build]… whereas if it had been done traditionally with a concrete frame it would have taken at least 26 weeks.” Similarly, says Waugh, a recent 16,000-square-metre CLT building he worked on, “would have needed around 1,000 cement truck deliveries for the frame alone. To deliver all the CLT, we needed just 92 deliveries.”

使用木材建房會更快、更易建造,因此也減少了勞動成本、運輸燃料和建造場地的用電量。基建設施公司Aecom的董事艾莉森·沃林(Alison Wring)以一個使用交叉層壓板為建材的住宅屋邨為例。該屋邨約有200套公寓,“只花了16個星期就完工……但要是用上傳統的混凝土框架建造,至少需要26個星期”。同樣,安德魯‧沃說,他最近設計的一座一萬六千平方米的交叉層壓板大樓,如果用混凝土,“僅結構框架就需要1000輛卡車車次來運送水泥”。但運送所有的交叉層壓板,“我們只需要92個車次”。

Other countries are turning to timber, too. Monika Lebeničnik, a sales engineer for Ledinek Engineering, an Austrian-Slovenian firm that makes the presses for CLT factories, sent me her order sheet going back to 2013. It begins with a trickle of orders from Austria and Scandinavia. But from 2017 onwards, there is sudden take-up from Japan, France, Australia, Latvia and Canada. “Annual capacity of such lines range from 25,000 to 50,000 cubic meters [of CLT],” explains Lebeničnik. Data suggests that 1,000 cubic metres of CLT equates to around 500 harvested trees; factories processing 50,000 cubic metres are therefore trapping the sequestered carbon of 25,000 trees per year.

其他國家也紛紛轉用木材做建材。一家代銷交叉層壓板的奧地利和斯洛文尼亞合資工程公司Ledinek的銷售員莫妮卡,先給我看她公司2013年的訂單記錄,只有來自奧地利和斯洛文尼亞的少量訂單。但從2017年起,日本、法國、澳大利亞、拉脫維亞和加拿大這些國家也紛紛向他們訂貨。莫妮卡解釋說,“我們公司平均每年代銷的交叉層壓板在2萬5千到5萬立方米這個范圍。”數據顯示,1000立方米的交叉層壓板相當于要砍伐500棵成年樹,因此,每年加工5萬立方米的交叉層壓板所收回的碳排量就相當于2.5萬棵樹木所收獲的碳。

There are even advantages that make the material particularly attractive to countries like Japan, since it has been found to perform well in earthquake tests. A joint Italian-Japanese research team built a seven-storey CLT building and tested it on a “shake table” (a cool but eerie video of this exists on Youtube). They found that it could withstand shaking at the level of the 1995 earthquake in Kobe, Japan, which destroyed more than 50,000 buildings. With serendipitous timing, says Waugh, “the Americans planted lots of trees in Japan as part of the Marshall Plan – that was over 60 years ago, and they are reaching maturity now”.

交叉層壓木板甚至還有一些優勢特別吸引日本這樣的國家,因為人們發現這種建材在地震測試中表現很良好。意大利和日本的一個聯合研究小組曾用交叉層壓板建造了一座七層樓房,并在一個“地震模擬臺”上進行了測試。Youtube上有這個測試的視頻,很酷,但也有點怪異。研究小組發現這座交叉層壓板樓房可以承受1995年日本神戶地震那樣的強度,那次地震摧毀了5萬多棟建筑。沃夫說,時間很巧的是,“當年作為馬歇爾計劃的一部分,美國人在日本種了很多樹。那是60多年前的事了,現在這些幼苗已成為參天大樹。”

Counterintuitively, CLT also performs well in fires. It is designed to withstand heats of up to 270C before it begins to char – the charring on the outside then acts as a protective layer for the structural density of the wood behind it. By contrast, at similar temperatures concrete can spall and crack, and steel loses its strength.

與人們的直覺相反,交叉層壓板抗火能力不但不差,反而相當出色。這種工程建材的設計能夠承受高達270攝氏度的高溫,然后才開始炭化,而且炭化后的木板外表如同一層保護層,能保護炭化下面的木材結構密度。但在類似的高溫下,混凝土會剝落和龜裂,鋼也會失去強度。

Not everyone believes that the future is CLT, however. When I ask Chris Cheeseman, professor of materials resources engineering at Imperial College London, whether wood could usurp concrete as our primary building material, his response is blunt. “No. That isn’t going to happen. It might happen locally with some small schemes. But you’ve got to appreciate the massive use of concrete, and the massive importance of concrete to infrastructure and society. It is an exceptionally good material because of its functionality and its robustness.”

不過,并非人人都相信建筑的未來是交叉層壓板。我問倫敦帝國理工學院(Imperial College London)材料資源工程學教授克里斯·奇斯曼(Chris Cheeseman),木材能否取代混凝土成為我們的主要建筑材料,他直言回答,“不能。這不會成為現實。只可能用于當地一些小型工程。但你必須認識到混凝土才能大量使用,以及混凝土對基礎設施和社會的巨大重要性。因為混凝土的功能性和堅固性,是一種非常好的建筑材料。”

There is also the “end of life” question. Carbon only remains trapped in the wood for as long as the building remains standing or is reused in another building – if it rots or is burned for energy, then all the stored carbon is released. Doug King, a chartered engineer and building sustainability advisor, tells me, “unless we attend to the disposal of timber materials at their end of life there is no guarantee that the overall cycle is making a positive benefit to society.” Previous research work by Arup in 2014 estimated that half of all construction timber ends up in landfill, 36% is recycled and the remaining 14% burnt for biomass energy.

此外,還有一個木材“生命終結”的問題。只要建筑物屹立不倒,或木材料回收后用于其他建筑,碳就會一直被困在木材里。但如果木材腐爛或者作為能源被燃燒,那么儲存在木材中的碳就會被釋放到大氣中。特許工程師、建筑可持續發展顧問道格·金(Doug King)告訴我,“除非我們能解決木材使用壽命結束后的處理問題,否則無法保證木材的整個碳循環過程會有益于社會。”英國奧雅納建筑公司于2014年做的研究估計,一半的建筑木材最終被填埋,36%被回收,剩下的14%會作為生物質能源使用。

Despite these issues, Waugh remains ambitious. The average lifetime of a building is 50-60 years – that, he believes, is more than enough time for architects and engineers to work out the re-use and recycling issues. Turning it into biochar could be one possibility. Waugh’s buildings are made to be easy to take apart for re-use by future generations.

雖然有這些問題,但仍然未能阻止安德魯‧沃開發木結構建筑的雄心壯志。一座建筑的平均壽命是50至60年。他認為,五六十年時間足夠建筑師和工程師解決再利用和回收問題。轉化為生物炭或許是一種選擇。因此他的建筑事務所所設計的建筑都易于拆卸,其材料可供后代子孫一用再用。

Fundamentally he – along with a growing group of international architects – is convinced that mass adoption of CLT is an important weapon in the fight against climate change. “It’s not a fad or a fashion,” he tells me as we finish the tour of his east London build, and I take my final, incongruous breath of the forest air. “The largest commercial developer in the UK have just bought this building. For me, that’s where you want to be… I want this to be mainstream. Everybody should be building with this.”

基本而言,安德魯‧沃與越來越多的國際建筑師相信,大規模使用交叉層壓板作建材是對抗氣候變化的一個重要武器。參觀完東倫敦這座正在動工的交叉層壓板樓房,再次深深呼吸一下這來自森林的氣味后,沃對我說,“這不是什么短期或長期的時尚。英國最大的商業開發商剛剛買下了這棟樓房。對我來說,這就是你想要的居住的環境…...我希望交叉層壓木板成為主流建材。大家都應該用來建房。”

I return to my original question: could we realistically return to wood as our primary building material? “It’s not only realistic, it’s imperative,” argues Waugh. “It has to happen. In architecture you always go back to the sketch: the sketch is climate change.”

我再提到我最初的問題:我們是否可以真正地將木材作為人類的主要建筑材料?沃這樣回答:“這不僅是可行的,而且勢在必行。我們必須這樣做。說到建筑,你一定要先制作草圖,而草圖就是氣候變化。”

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