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基因編輯嬰兒風波后續:斯坦福調查賀建奎前導師

    Palo alto, calif. -- "success! The subject line of the email says. The letter, written in flawed English, begins: "good news! Women get pregnant, genomes are edited!"

    加利福尼亞州帕洛阿爾托——“成功!”郵件的主題欄寫著。這封用有瑕疵的英文寫的信在一開始說:“好消息!女人們懷孕了,基因組編輯成功!”

    The author is he jiankui, an ambitious young Chinese scientist. The recipient was his former academic mentor, Stephen Quake, a star bioengineer and inventor at Stanford.

    發件人是雄心勃勃的年輕中國科學家賀建奎。收件人是他以前的學術導師、斯坦福大學(Stanford)的明星生物工程師和發明家斯蒂芬·奎克(Stephen Quake)。

    Wow, that's an amazing achievement! Quick wrote back. "Hopefully she'll make it through... "

    “哇,這真是一個了不起的成就!”奎克回信說。“希望她能堅持到分娩……”

    A few months later, the world knew the results of that pregnancy: the genetically modified embryos gave birth to twins, the first genetically edited babies. The reaction was fierce. Many scientists and ethicists condemned the experiment as unethical and unsafe, fearing it would encourage reckless or reckless use of unproven and unregulated methods to create permanent genetic changes.

    幾個月后,全世界都知道了那次懷孕的結果:經過了基因修改的胚胎誕下雙胞胎,這是首例基因編輯嬰兒。此舉引發的反應非常激烈。許多科學家和倫理學家譴責該實驗不道德、不安全,擔心它會促使有人無所顧忌或草率地利用未經證實和不受監管的方法創造永久性的基因變化。

    In January, an investigation by the Chinese government concluded that he had "seriously violated ethics, scientific research integrity and relevant state regulations."

    今年1月,中國政府的的調查結論是,賀建奎“嚴重違背倫理道德和科研誠信,嚴重違反國家有關規定”。

    Since Dr. He made his research public in November, there has been controversy over whether other American scientists knew about his plans and why they kept it secret.

    自從去年11月賀建奎公開自己的研究成果以來,圍繞其他美國科學家對他的計劃是否知情,以及他們為何秘而不宣,一直存在爭議。

    But now quick is facing a Stanford investigation into his dealings with Dr. He. The investigation began after the President of Dr. He's university in China sent a letter to Stanford's President saying Mr. Quick had offered his help.

    但現在,奎克正面臨斯坦福大學對他與賀建奎的往來所做的調查。調查是在賀建奎所在中國大學的校長致信斯坦福大學校長,稱奎克提供了幫助之后開始的。

    Professor Stephen quick provided guidance on the preparation and implementation of experiments, the publication of papers, press releases and subsequent response strategies, the school's President said in the letter obtained by the New York times. Mr Quick's actions, he asserted, were "contrary to internationally accepted academic ethics and codes of conduct and must be condemned".

    “斯蒂芬·奎克教授在實驗的準備和實施、論文的發表、新聞稿以及之后的回應策略方面,提供了指導,”在《紐約時報》獲得的信件中,該校校長稱。他斷言,奎克的行為“違反了國際公認的學術倫理和行為準則,必須予以譴責”。

    Mr. Quick denied the allegations in a lengthy interview, saying his interactions with Dr. He had been misunderstood. He jiankui was a postdoctoral student in his lab eight years ago.

    奎克在一個長采訪中否認了這些指控,稱他與賀建奎的互動遭到了誤解。賀建奎8年前在他實驗室攻讀博士后。

    I had nothing to do with it, and I had no part in it, quick said. "I have high ethical standards for myself."

    “這件事與我無關,我也沒有參與其中,”奎克說。“我對自己有很高的倫理標準要求。”

    Mr. Quick showed the New York times emails he said he had exchanged with Dr. He over the past few years. These communications shed light on the informal ways in which researchers operate in a rapidly evolving and ethically controversial field.

    奎克向《紐約時報》展示了據他稱是過去幾年與賀建奎的電子郵件往來。透過這些通信可以看到,研究人員如何在一個快速發展、存在倫理爭議的領域以非正規的方式行事。

    The emails show that Dr. He, 35, informed Ms. Quick, 49, of significant developments, including the woman's pregnancy and delivery. According to the email, quick advised him to get ethical approval from the Chinese authorities and submit his findings to a peer-reviewed journal for review, promising to discuss issues such as when to publish them publicly.

    這些電子郵件顯示,35歲的賀建奎向49歲的奎克通報了重大進展,其中包括這名女子的懷孕與分娩。郵件顯示,奎克建議他獲得中國有關機構的倫理批準,并將研究結果提交給同行評審的期刊進行審核,他還答應對方就何時公開發表研究結果等問題展開討論。

    It is not clear from the text that quick was involved in the research. Emails do contain polite encouragement, such as "good luck". Mr. Quick said he had urged him not to proceed with the project at a meeting in August 2016, but that the emails, which were mostly sent in 2017 and 2018, showed that Mr. He had not stopped.

    從這些文字中看不出奎克參與了研究工作。郵件確實包含了禮貌的鼓勵,比如“祝你好運”。奎克表示他在2016年8月的一次會議上曾經敦促對方不要繼續這個項目,但這些電子郵件表明賀建奎并沒有收手,郵件的發送日期大多是在2017年和2018年。

    As global bodies such as the World Health Organization work to create a system to prevent reckless scientists from ventoring into the wild west of embryo editing, Mr. Quick's interaction with Dr. He reflects the problems leading scientific institutions are now grappling with.

    隨著世界衛生組織(World Health Organization)等全球性機構致力于創建一個系統,以防那些莽撞的科學家擅闖胚胎編輯這個蠻荒西部,奎克與賀建奎的互動反映了領先的科研機構目前正在努力解決的問題。

    When and where should scientists report controversial research ideas that colleagues privately share with them? Is it inappropriate for scientists to offer conventional research advice to unorthodox experimenters?

    科學家們應該于何時、去哪里上報同事私下與他們分享的有爭議的研究想法?科學家們向進行非正統實驗者提供常規性的研究建議,是否有失妥當?

    A lot of people would like to hear more from people who knew or suspected. "Said r. Alta Charo, a bioethicist at the University of wisconsin-madison and one of the leaders of the 2017 national human embryo editorial board.

    蛐蛐英語 www.uydujn.live

    “很多人希望那些事先知道或懷疑過的人呼聲能再大一些。”威斯康辛大學麥迪遜分校(University of Wisconsin-Madison)的生物倫理學家、2017年全國人類胚胎編輯委員會領導人之一R·奧塔·查洛(R. Alta Charo)說。

    But, she said, if scientists are not trying to stop rogue experimenters, but merely advising them to follow ethical and research standards in the hope that institutions will intervene, they are not necessarily complicit.

    但她表示,如果科學家沒有試圖阻止胡作非為的實驗者,只是建議對方遵循倫理和研究標準,以期機構能夠干預,那么不見得他們就是同謀。

    Rice University has been investigating Dr. He's doctoral supervisor, Michael Deem, for allegedly being an active participant in the project; He has publicly said he was present during parts of the project. Dean's lawyer issued a strong denial of the charges.

    萊斯大學(Rice University)一直在調查賀建奎的博士生導師邁克爾·迪恩(Michael Deem),因為有說法指他曾積極參與這一項目;他曾公開表示項目的部分環節進行期間有他在場。迪恩的律師發表了強烈否認這些指控的聲明。

    Mr. Quick's Shared letter provided new details about Dr. He's project, also known as germline editing, including that the twin girls were severely premature and were hospitalized for several weeks after birth. They were born in October, which contradicted previous reports.

    奎克分享的信件提供了有關賀建奎的項目——又稱種系編輯——的新細節,包括這對雙胞胎女嬰嚴重早產,出生后留院數周。她們出生于十月,這與此前的報道有出入。

    Quick is an entrepreneur whose inventions include blood tests to detect down syndrome during pregnancy and to avoid rejection of organ transplants. He is co-director of an institute funded by Facebook founder Mark Zuckerberg and his wife, Dr. Priscilla Chan. He does not do gene editing and said he was surprised when Dr. He told him during a visit to Stanford in 2016 that he wanted to be the first person to create a gene-edited baby.

    奎克是一名企業家,他的發明包括用于檢測妊娠期唐氏綜合癥以及避免器官移植排異的血液檢測。他是由Facebook創始人馬克·扎克伯格(Mark Zuckerberg)和妻子普莉希拉·陳博士(Priscilla Chan)資助的一個研究所的聯席所長。他不做基因編輯,并表示當賀建奎在2016年訪問斯坦福期間告訴他,他想成為創建基因編輯嬰兒的第一人時,他感到很驚訝。

    I said, 'that's a terrible idea. Why are you doing this? ' quick recalled. "He kind of contradicted me. Obviously he didn't listen to me."

    “我說,‘這是個糟糕的主意。你為什么要做這個呢?’”奎克回憶說。“他有點反駁的意思,顯然他沒聽我的話。”

    Quick changed tack. "I said, 'well, if I think it's a bad idea and you don't believe it, and you want to go down that path, then you need to treat it right, and have proper respect for the people involved, and the field. '"

    奎克改變了策略。“我說,‘好吧,如果我認為這是個壞主意但你不相信,你想沿著這條道往下走,那么你就需要正確對待它,要適當尊重參與其中的人,還有這個領域。’”

    That means getting the equivalent of an IRB ethical approval, as well as the informed consent of the participating couples to simply edit the gene to meet a serious medical need, quick suggests.

    奎克建議稱,這意味著要獲得相當于美國機構審查委員會(IRB)的倫理審批,以及獲得參與夫婦的知情同意,且只是編輯基因以滿足一項嚴重的醫療需求。

    I didn't think he was going to take it seriously, Mr. Quick said, adding that he thought Mr. He had sought ethical approval and was rejected. "probably he would have given up."

    “我當時沒覺得他會把這事當真,”奎克說,他接著說他以為賀建奎尋求過倫理審批然后被拒了,“很可能他會罷休。”

    Not long after, he jiankui emailed: "I will accept your suggestion that we obtain local ethical approval before embarking on the first gene-editing baby project. Keep it a secret."

    沒過多久,賀建奎發來郵件:“我會接受您的建議,即我們在開始著手首例基因編輯嬰兒項目前,要取得當地的倫理審批。請保密。”

    In June 2017, Dr. He jiankui, also known as JK, issued a document saying that a hospital ethics committee had approved his proposal, in which he boasted that his plan was comparable to Nobel research.

    2017年6月,別名JK的賀建奎發了份文件,稱某醫院倫理委員會已通過了他的提議,他在其中夸口稱他的計劃堪比諾貝爾獎研究。

    It was nice to see him contact his IRB counterpart and get approval to conduct the study, and I thought it was their responsibility to manage that, quick said in an interview. "If I had detected any signs of misconduct in my interaction with JK, I would have handled it differently. And I will be very active in reporting it."

    “當時很高興看到他聯絡了IRB對等機構,并獲得了開展研究的審批,我那時想著管理這個是他們的責任,”奎克在接受采訪時表示。“如果在跟JK的互動中,我覺察到了任何行為不端的跡象,那么我的處理方式會完全不同。并且我會非常積極地去通報這件事。”

紐約時報中英文網 www.uydujn.live

    In his 2017 letter, Dr. He said he would edit a gene called CCR5 to change a mutation that makes people infected with HIV. Many scientists have since said it was medically unnecessary because babies born to hiv-positive parents could be protected in other ways. Quick says he doesn't think there is a scientific consensus on this.

    在賀建奎2017年的信件中,他表示他將對名為CCR5的基因進行編輯,更改一種會使人感染HIV病毒的基因突變。許多科學家此后已表示,這在醫學上沒有必要,因為HIV呈陽性的父母所生下的嬰兒可通過其他方式獲得保護。奎克稱,他認為在這一點上科學界并未達成共識。

    In early April 2018, it was titled "success! "An embryo that edited the CCR5 gene was transplanted into a woman 10 days ago, and pregnancy has been confirmed today!"

    2018年4月初,那封題為“成功!”的電子郵件中寫道:“10天前,編輯過CCR5基因的胚胎被移植到女性身上,今天已證實懷孕!”

    Quick did not immediately respond, but forwarded the email to what he called a senior gene editor. "I think he can give me some advice." He blacked out the expert's name.

    奎克沒有立即回復,而是把這封電子郵件轉發給了一位據他稱為資深基因編輯專家的人。“我覺得他能給我一些建議。”他對這位專家的名字做了涂黑處理。

    For your information, this may be the first human germ cell edit, quick wrote. "I urged him to get IRB approval, and as far as I know, he did. His goal is to help hiv-positive parents get pregnant. It's too early for him to celebrate, but I think if she gets pregnant, it will be big news."

    “謹供參考,這可能是第一例人類生殖細胞編輯,”奎克寫道。“我強烈要求他獲取IRB批準,據我所知,他這樣做了。他的目標是幫助HIV陽性的父母懷孕。現在對他來說慶祝還為時過早,但我覺得,如果她順利懷孕,這會是一個大新聞。”

    The expert replied: "I just told someone last week that I think this has happened. This must be news... "

    那位專家回復說:“我上周剛跟人說,我覺得這件事已經發生了。這肯定是新聞……”

    Quick found the response "very bland." "He's not surprised. He didn't say, 'oh my god, you have to notify the mystery science police,' "quick said.

    奎克覺得這個反應“非常平淡”。“他一點也不驚訝。他沒有說,‘哦,天哪,你必須通知神秘的科學警察,’”奎克說。

    Six months later, in mid-october, he sent another E-mail: "good news! The baby was born (please keep it a secret)."

    六個月后的10月中旬,賀建奎又發了一封電子郵件:“好消息!孩子出生了(請保密)。”

    Mr He asked to meet Mr Quick during his planned trip to San Francisco, saying: "I want your help on how to announce the results, and on pr and ethics."

    賀建奎要求在他已計劃好的舊金山之行期間同奎克見面,說:“我想從你那里得到幫助,告訴我如何宣布結果、以及公關和道德規范方面的事。”

    Quick replied, "we definitely want to meet."

    奎克回答說:“我們肯定是要見一見。”

    During that meeting, Mr. Quick recalled, he told Mr. He about what he had done. "I also pressured him to get ethical clearance. I said it's going to get a lot of attention, it's going to get a lot of scrutiny. Are you sure you're doing everything right?"

    奎克回憶說,在那次會面中,他向賀建奎介紹了自己所做的事情。“我還向他施壓,要求他獲得倫理許可。我說,這會得到大量關注,將會受到非常嚴格的審查。你確定你做的每件事都是對的嗎?”

    He said he was upset by Dr. He's response. "The gimmick came back: 'actually two hospitals were involved, you know, we got approval from one hospital, we were doing it in both hospitals. 'I said,' you'd better fix this. '"

    他說,賀建奎的回答讓他感到不安。“投機取巧的小花招又出現了:‘實際上有兩家醫院參與,你知道,我們得到了一家醫院的批準,我們在兩家醫院都在做。’我說,‘你最好把這個解決好。’”

    Back in China, Dr. He wrote: "the good news is that the hospital conducting the clinical trial approved the ethical material," he added. "they signed off on the ethical material from another hospital."

    回到中國后,賀建奎來信說:“好消息是,進行臨床試驗的醫院批準了倫理材料,”他補充說,“他們簽字認可了另一家醫院的倫理材料。”

    Quick replied, "good news, thanks for the update."

    奎克回答說:“好消息,謝謝你通知最新情況。”

    About a week later, Mr. Quick was contacted by his publicist, Ryan Ferrell, concerned that showing the project publicly so soon would "cause serious and permanent damage to his reputation and the field." "The twins are still in the hospital, so there is no positive image," Farrell added.

    大約一周后,賀建奎的公關瑞安·法雷爾(Ryan Ferrell)聯系了奎克,擔心賀建奎這么快就公開展示這個項目會“對他的聲譽和這個領域造成嚴重和永久性的損害”。法雷爾還說,“這對雙胞胎目前還在醫院,所以沒有正面形象。”

    Mr. Quick, who was in Hong Kong on other errands during the genome editing conference, met with Dr. He and Mr. Farrell and told them, "people are going to hold you to very high standards," he said. "The first reaction is that you're faking it."

    在香港的基因組編輯會議期間,奎克到香港去辦其他事務,他與賀建奎和法雷爾見了面,并告訴他們,“人們會用非常高的標準要求你,”他說。“人們的第一反應會是你在造假。”

    He suggested he submit the study to a peer-reviewed journal, and he did.

    他建議賀建奎把這項研究提交給同行評審期刊,賀建奎照做了。

    Then, because journal reviews take time, Mr. Quick said, he advised Mr. He not to publish the story in Hong Kong, but to speak privately with key experts there to "prepare them for what's going to happen, which also makes it more likely that they will have a positive opinion of your work."

    然后,由于期刊評審需要時間,奎克說,他建議賀建奎不要在香港公布這件事,而是在那里同重要專家私下交流,讓他們“對將要發生的事有個準備,這樣也讓他們更有可能對你的工作有正面評價。”

    But he was not convinced. "I don't want to wait six months or more before announcing the results, or people will say, 'a Chinese scientist hid the baby for six months. '"

    但賀建奎沒有被說服。“我不想等六個月或更長時間之后才公布結果,否則人們會說,‘一個中國科學家把嬰兒偷偷藏了六個月。’”

    Quick retorted, "it would be wise to let peer review go through the process in a step-by-step manner."

    奎克反駁說:“讓同行評審按部就班完成這個過程是明智之舉。”

    But Dr. He decided to continue his remarks in Hong Kong. When news of the twins broke two days before the speech, quick emailed, "good luck with your upcoming speech!" But it added, "please take my name" off the thank you list.

    但是賀建奎決定繼續他在香港的發言。發言兩天前,雙胞胎的消息傳出來了,奎克發郵件說,“祝你即將到來的演講一切順利!”但補充說,“請把我的名字”從幻燈片的致謝名單上刪去。

    He was hyping it up, quick explained in an interview. "I really don't know if it's going to be good or bad. But it's not about me. I don't want my name on it."

    “他是在圍繞這件事大肆炒作,”奎克在接受采訪時解釋說。“我真的不知道結果是好還是壞。但這件事與我無關,我不想讓我的名字出現在上面。”

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