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金庸,打造武俠世界的華語文學巨匠

  Hong Kong -- jin yong, one of the literary giants of the chinese-speaking world, died in Hong Kong last Tuesday at the age of 94. Generations of Chinese have read his fantastical historical novels, which have been adapted into countless films, TV series and video games.

  香港——華語世界的文學巨匠金庸于上周二在香港去世,享年94歲。一代代華人讀過他的奇幻歷史小說,這些小說也改編成不計其數的電影、電視劇和電子游戲。

  His death at the Hong Kong sanatorium and hospital was confirmed by Ming pao, a prominent Hong Kong newspaper co-founded by Louis cha and run for decades. The cause was organ failure, said Chip Tsao, a writer and friend of cha's.

  《明報》確認了他在香港養和醫院離世,這份香港著名的報紙由金庸參與創辦,已運營數十年。金庸的好友、作家陶杰(Chip Tsao)說,死因是器官衰竭。

  Jin yong is the pen name of Louis cha, one of the most widely read Chinese writers of the 20th century. His fictional world, with its panoramic breadth and depth, has been compared to J.R.R. Tolkien's "Lord of the rings," and the study of his novels is known as "goldology."

  金庸是查良鏞的筆名,他是20世紀讀者最多的華語作家之一。他創造的虛構世界有著全景式的開闊與縱深,被拿來與托爾金(J.R.R. Tolkien)的《指環王》相提并論,對其小說的研究被稱為“金學”。

  Cha began writing novels in the mid-1950s as a film critic and editor for Hong Kong's new evening news. Hong Kong was then a crown colony of the British government. He moved to Hong Kong in 1948 and spent most of his life there.

  金庸從1950年代中開始寫小說,時任香港《新晚報》的影評人和編輯。那時候香港還是英國政府的直轄殖民地。他于1948年移居香港,在那里度過了一生的大部分時間。

  From 1955 to 1972, cha wrote 14 novels, novellas and one short wuxia novel. Wuxia is a popular genre of fiction that focuses on exaggerated kung fu adventures.

  從1955年到1972年,金庸寫了14部長篇、中篇和1部短篇武俠小說。武俠是流行的小說類型,主要講述夸張的功夫冒險。

  His first wuxia novel, book and sword, was inspired by a legend that the manchu emperor qianlong was actually a han Chinese who had been swapped at birth. The novel was serialized in the new evening post and became an instant hit.

  他第一部武俠小說《書劍恩仇錄》(1955年)的靈感來自一個傳說:滿族皇帝乾隆實際上是個漢人,他在出生時被掉包。小說在《新晚報》連載,一炮而紅。

  He started writing when the Chinese communist party banned martial arts literature, calling it "decadent" and "feudal." The ban also reflects an ancient view of the Chinese literary tradition: that wuxia is an unfashionable genre.

  他開始寫作的那個時候,中國共產黨禁止了武俠文學,稱之為“腐朽”“封建”。禁令也反映出中國文學傳統的一個古老觀點:武俠是不入流的類型。

  But among Hong Kong and other Chinese diaspora, cha's novels sparked a new wave of martial arts fiction in the 1950s and 1960s.

  但是在香港和其他散居海外的華人當中,金庸的小說在五六十年代掀起了一股新的武俠小說熱潮。

  By blending poetry, history and fantasy, jin yong elevates this already fairly routine genre of fiction, creating hundreds of vivid characters who travel through a world that operates according to its own laws and ethics but reflects reality.

  通過融合詩歌、歷史和幻想,金庸拔高了這個已經相當套路化的小說類型,創造出幾百個生動人物,穿行在一個依照自身法則和道德規范運行而又映射現實的俗世。

紐約時報中英文網 http://www.uydujn.live/

  In these tales of love, chivalry, friendship and filial piety, many of his characters are imperfect and have complex emotional histories that only make them more appealing.

  在這些講述愛情、俠義、友情和孝道的故事里,他的諸多人物并不完美,有著錯綜的情感往事,這只讓他們更為動人。

  It's easy to write about heroes, cha said in a 2012 interview. "But as you get older... Behind this great hero, there is a base side to him, a dark side to him."

  “寫英雄很容易,”金庸在2012年的一次采訪中說。“但年紀慢慢大了之后……這個大英雄后面,其實有他自己卑鄙的一方面,有他見不得人的一方面。”

  Published in many languages, his books have sold tens of millions of copies and spawned numerous adaptations of movies, TV shows and video games.

  他的作品以多種語言出版,銷量達數千萬冊,帶來影視和電子游戲的大量改編。

  Jin yong used wuxia novels as the carrier to talk about Chinese history and traditional culture, and borrowed a lot of classical expressions to forge a fictional colloquial language. His stories often take place at critical moments in Chinese history, such as the change of dynasties. Stories often mention Confucianism, Buddhism and Taoism, and place martial arts alongside traditional Chinese medicine, acupuncture and calligraphy as part of Chinese culture.

  金庸用武俠小說為載體談論中國歷史和傳統文化,大量借鑒古典表達,鍛造出虛構的白話口語。他的故事經常發生在中國歷史的關鍵時刻,比如改朝換代。故事時常提及儒釋道的思想,并將武術與中醫、針灸和書法并列,作為中國文化的組成部分。

  Jin yong has picked up an "unfashionable, even disreputable, form of popular fiction that has become both a vehicle for serious literary expression and an appeal to Chinese readers around the world," John Christopher Hamm, an associate professor of Asian languages and literature at the university of Washington, said in a telephone interview.

  華盛頓大學亞洲語言文學副教授韓倚松(John Christopher Hamm)在接受電話采訪時說,金庸拾起了一種“不入流的,甚至名聲不好的通俗小說形式,使其既成為嚴肅文學表達的載體,又吸引了全球華人讀者”。

  After the success of his early novels, jin yong founded his own newspaper, Ming pao, in Hong Kong in 1959. Soon he was serializing his novels and writing daily editorials on the horrors of MAO zedong's China.

  早期的小說取得成功之后,金庸1959年在香港創辦了自己的報紙《明報》。很快他就一邊連載他的小說,一邊每天撰寫毛澤東時代中國各種駭人事件的社評。

  The theme was familiar to him: his father had been branded a "class enemy" and executed by the communists in 1951.

  這個主題他是有切身體會的:1951年,他父親被打成“階級敵人”,遭共產黨處決。

  When China began its economic and political opening up in 1981, cha traveled to Beijing to meet MAO's successor, deng xiaoping. Deng xiaoping admits to being a loyal reader of jin yong's novels.

  1981年中國開始了經濟和政治上的開放,金庸到北京會見了毛的繼任者鄧小平。鄧小平承認自己是金庸小說的忠實讀者。

  Soon after, mainland China lifted the ban on jin yong's novels. This comes at a time when many young Chinese are eager to read something different from the familiar mao-era socialist propaganda.

  之后不久,中國大陸撤銷了金庸小說的禁令。這時候正值許多中國年輕人渴望讀些跟司空見慣的毛時代社會主義宣傳品不一樣的東西。

  Reading his novels opened our eyes, liu jianmei, a professor of contemporary Chinese literature at the Hong Kong university of science and technology, said in a telephone interview. "His way of thinking was so different from the way it was cultivated in mainland China at the time. He helps us think out of right and wrong, good and bad."

  “讀他的小說打開了我們的眼界,”香港科技大學當代中國文學教授劉劍梅在電話采訪中說。“他的思維方式與當時中國大陸培養的那種方式如此不同。他幫助我們跳出是與非、好與壞去思考。”

  In 1985, cha was appointed to the political committee responsible for drafting Hong Kong's basic law. The mini-constitution will govern the semi-autonomous city after the end of British colonial rule and the handover of sovereignty to Hong Kong. He has drawn criticism for backing a conservative proposal not to elect Hong Kong's leader by universal suffrage.

  1985年,金庸被任命為負責起草香港《基本法》的政治委員會成員。這部小型憲法將在英國結束殖民統治、移交香港主權后管理這個半自治城市。他支持一項保守建議,不以普選方式選出香港領導人,招致批評。

  Cha's initial optimism about China's political openness was shattered in 1989 when the Chinese government brutally crushed the student democracy movement in tiananmen square.

  1989年,中國政府血腥鎮壓天安門廣場上的學生民主運動,金庸最初對中國政治開放的樂觀態度破滅了。

  He resigned from the basic law drafting committee in protest. "Students' peaceful petitions should never be suppressed by soldiers," he said in a tearful interview.

  他從基本法起草委員會辭職以示抗議。他在一次流下淚水的采訪中說:“學生的和平請愿絕不應該用軍人鎮壓。”

  Louis cha was born on March 10, 1924 in haining, zhejiang province, the second of seven children. His father, zha shuqing, was an educated landowner. His mother, xu lu, came from a wealthy merchant family.

  查良鏞1924年3月10日出生在浙江海寧,是七個孩子中的老二。他的父親查樞卿是一位受過教育的地主。他的母親徐祿出自富裕的商賈人家。

  Jin yong graduated from soochow university law school in 1948. Since then, he has worked as a reporter and translator for ta kung pao in Shanghai. In 1948, he moved with the newspaper to Hong Kong, which would become his home for the next 70 years.

  金庸1948年畢業于東吳大學法學院。此后他開始擔任上海《大公報》的記者和翻譯。1948年,他隨報社遷至香港,這里成為他后來70年的家。

  He stopped writing novels in 1972. He resigned as chairman of Ming pao enterprises in 1993.

  1972年,他封筆不再寫小說。1993年,他辭去明報企業董事局主席的職務。

  Cha is survived by his third wife, Lin leyi, and by his children from his second marriage, a son, cha chuan-ti, and two daughters, cha chuan-shi and cha chuan-ne.

  金庸的在世親人還有第三任妻子林樂怡,以及他與第二任妻子的孩子:兒子查傳倜和兩個女兒查傳詩、查傳訥。

  This year, "legend of the condor heroes," the first in cha's popular trilogy, was translated into English by Anna Holmwood.

  今年,金庸備受歡迎的三部曲中的第一部《射雕英雄傳》由郝玉青(Anna Holmwood)譯成了英文。

  Jin yong's original Chinese novels are read by prominent fans. Alibaba group chairman jack ma, for one, has used characters from jin yong's novels as nicknames for his employees.

  金庸中文原版小說的讀者當中不乏顯赫的粉絲。阿里巴巴集團董事長馬云就是其一,他曾用金庸小說中人物的名字給手下員工當綽號。

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